It is worth refreshing your knowledge on local anaesthetic systemic toxicity.  


Check out the papers mentioned.

Liem EB, Lin CM, Suleman MI, Doufas AG, Gregg RG, Veauthier JM, Loyd G, Sessler DI. Anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Anesthesiology. 2004 Aug;101(2):279-83. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200408000-00006. PMID: 15277908; PMCID: PMC1362956. 

Gradwohl SC, Aranake A, Abdallah AB, McNair P, Lin N, Fritz BA, Villafranca A, Glick D, Jacobsohn E, Mashour GA, Avidan MS. Intraoperative awareness risk, anesthetic sensitivity, and anesthetic management for patients with natural red hair: a matched cohort study. Can J Anaesth. 2015 Apr;62(4):345-55. doi: 10.1007/s12630-014-0305-8. Epub 2015 Feb 14. PMID: 25681040; PMCID: PMC4661058. 

Liem EB, Joiner TV, Tsueda K, Sessler DI. Increased sensitivity to thermal pain and reduced subcutaneous lidocaine efficacy in redheads. Anesthesiology. 2005 Mar;102(3):509-14. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200503000-00006. PMID: 15731586; PMCID: PMC1692342. 

El-Boghdadly K, Pawa A, Chin KJ. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: current perspectives. Local Reg Anesth. 2018 Aug 8;11:35-44. doi: 10.2147/LRA.S154512. PMID: 30122981; PMCID: PMC6087022. 

RCH Melbourne Guidelines –

Music licensed from

Full Grip by Score Squad

This podcast is intended to assist in ongoing medical education and peer discussion for qualified health professionals.  Please ensure you work within your scope of practice at all times.  For personal medical advice always consult your usual doctor